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Social Isolation
One question I'm asked these days is 'How did Romans shelter in place during an epidemic?' My answer is that they didn't, because they couldn't. Roman life was lived largely in public, with many of the functions that today we do at home happening elsewhere. Laundry was done by professionals, meals were largely take-out or tavern affairs, since the average Roman apartment was enough of a fire-trap already without adding wood-stoves to the mix. Toilets and baths were public affairs where a Roman could discuss the morning's gossip with the neighbours while taking his after-breakfast crap.

In other words, social isolation was impossible, because the average Roman was too integrated into his society. The same was true of most European homes for centuries. In fact I once used to live in a tiny one-bedroomed terrace house in Cambridge that was exactly six paces across (I measured it). It came as something of a surprise when a local historian told me that a family of fourteen had once lived there.

In other words, in ancient times, and in fact until a century ago, humans generally lived on top of each other with all the possibilities for infection which that entailed. The largely self-sufficient western household containing an average of 2.7 people is a new development which seems better placed to insulate humans from the effects of a virus than homes have been at any other time in history.
You'll never work alone
You might think that few people's lives would be less affected by a pandemic than a writer's - and to a large degree you would be right. After all, most of my normal working day is spent in isolation, reading recondite classical texts and then reporting my discoveries while sitting all alone at the keyboard. So under those circumstances, what difference does a 'stay at home' order make?

Well, it does make a difference, not because the lockdown affects me, but because it affects the people with whom I work. While my work can be done at home alone, a book is produced by more than one person. There's the publishers' committees that are currently not meeting to decide the viability of my latest book proposals. There's the housebound friends and colleagues whom I usually get to look up details which, even in the age of the internet, can only be found in specialist libraries - all of which are closed for the emergency. Finally there's the printers who are not printing my latest book, and the distributors who are having trouble getting it to the bookshops which are closed anyway.

So even if my weekly grocery shop did not nowadays more resemble a visit to a secure biowarfare facility, the pandemic would be affecting me. However, I'm well aware of how fortunate and privileged I am to be in my present line of work. While so many lives have been devastated, mine has been merely inconvenienced. Indeed, with lots of people stuck at home, sales of my books on Amazon have greatly increased.
The Plague Year

So another of the horsemen of the apocalypse is loose and galloping around the world. War and Famine have never gone away, but oftentimes they seemed far away from those of us fortunate enough to have comfortable homes in peaceful countries.

Plague is another story. With CORVID-19 plague has found away to get to us, and our friendly neighbourhoods and well-stocked supermarkets are no defence. It's a chilling glimpse into how terrifying plagues must have been in the ancient world, when people were faced with a devastating enemy that no army could repel or city walls keep out. And yet we have only a glimpse, because for all the panic and numerous tragedies it has caused, CORVID-19 is something of a pussycat compared to some of the plagues which racked ancient societies.

The most horrifying account of an ancient plague was written by a man who lived through it - the Athenian historian Thucydides. In his usual dispassionate manner Thucydides describes the symptoms of the illness, the effects on the victim, and the equally devastating effects on Athenian society.

"Men started to live from day to day, never knowing if they would see another -; Anything that gratified a passing whim or brought pleasure was considered worth doing, or even honourable. No-one cared about the laws of gods or men, for they saw that those who worshipped the gods died in equal numbers to those who did not, and no man worried about the consequences of committing crimes because he expected to be dead long before the courts could pass judgement."
(Thuc. 2.53)

The causes of the Thucydides plague are uncertain, though some variant of typhoid seems the best bet. What is certain that it killed more than the 1-4% which seems the maximum casualty rate of the present about-to-be pandemic, and even the modern figures are bad enough.

We are often reminded of the fragility of modern civilization, but perhaps we can draw a certain strength from the fact that our forebears have been through a great deal worse - and survived. In fact, even with plague tearing the city apart, the Athenians did not even take time off in their long war against Sparta.

Life at the (mountain)top
Clearing out the wardrobe the other day, I found a T-shirt I haven't worn for years. At it turned out, I still can't wear it, because it no longer fits. The stomach bit was understandable, as I have become more rotund over the years, but it was rather surprising that the garment was also way too tight on the chest and shoulders.

Thinking about it more, it occurred to me that living in the mountains is something of a full-body workout. Consider this morning for example, which started with shovelling snow. Pick up around 10kg of snow on the end of a specially designed shovel (more of a scoop) bend the knees, straighten the back and hurl the snow off the shovel. The hurl needs considerable force, as it's February, and all the convenient places to hurl snow have long since filled up, so the snow now needs to land on top of a 2-metre high pile of previously hurled snow. Repeat forty or fifty times. Then consider that it snowed for all but five days last month.

Then this evening I'll tee up a round of birch weighing 20kg or so (a 'round' is a cross section of tree trunk around 40 cm high), and I'll swing a 12kg wood splitting maul over my head and bring it down with considerable force, repeating the exercise until the birch has split into the night's firewood. Repeat almost every night from October to May. Tomorrow, by way of relaxation I'll walk up Mt Lepsoe on snowshoes, a climb of almost half a kilometre, using ski poles to take the strain off my leg muscles.

Summer, is different - no shovelling or splitting firewood - but there's gathering those trees from the forest, mountain hikes and swims and other ways of keeping active. The first time I went kayaking, I was surprised that paddling was not as hard as I had expected. On reflection, perhaps that's not so surprising.

(As an addendum, just as I was finishing this piece, my wife asked me to fetch up a 20kg sack of flour from the basement. Seriously, if you live hereabouts, who needs a gym?)
MMXX will be different(ish)!
Recently I heard a politician on a radio interview trying to weasel his way out of his broken election promises by explaining that these promises were 'aspirational' rather than actually achievable. This immediately struck me as an approach that can be applied to New Year's resolutions, so herewith are my 'aspirations' for 2020.

a. Be more sociable
In 2019, I had three books to either write or complete and several other projects on the go besides. As a result I tended to work late and was rather distracted when in company. Somehow I'm happier contemplating Polybius' approach to stasis than (for example) little Skylar's transition from diapers to potty.

b. Attempt Thucydides in the original Greek
Thuc. (as he is known to his friends) is a great writer, and this comes across even in translation. I am assured that he is even better in the original. Probably, if not that his participles and rare verb tenses are so convoluted that they have a tendency to vanish up their own proktos. But in 2020 I shall wrap a wet towel around my head and try.

c. Get out more
Now this resolution may seem to be a re-affirmation of a. and a direct contradiction of b. but getting out does not necessarily mean socializing. Just yesterday my wife and I were out – alone - in the middle of a snow-bound forest, many miles from anywhere. Hours tramping along in snowshoes allows plenty of time to consider mimetic description in Thuc. (and much else).

d. Cook less
We have a freezer bulging with rolls, bagels and different types of bread. We have so many cheeses maturing downstairs that we need another fridge. I give fresh pasta to the neighbours. Whenever I feel bored or in need of distraction I head for the kitchen. We'll be eating Xmas sausage rolls, cinnamon buns and Christmas cake until Easter. Self-restraint is needed.

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